St Nicholas Church of EnglandPrimary Academy


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Addition and subtraction within 10


Part-whole model, parts, whole, addition, fact family, number sentence, number bond., subtract, minus, take away



Towards the end of last term, we started the addition and subtraction unit where we introduced part-whole models, wrote number sentences and recapped our number bonds within 10. This term we are going to continue looking at number bonds but this time to 10 and start looking at subtraction. At the start of this page is a recap of what was learnt last term which will support with this terms learning. 

Part-whole model


This is a part-whole model. The two parts add together to make the whole. For example, the part-whole model below shows a 5 and a 4 as parts. The whole (the circle at the top) is the answer when the two parts are added together, so the answer will be 9. It is important children begin to understand a part-whole model as this model will support them throughout their mathematical journey through school. The children will have plenty of opportunities to use the model practically with manipulatives and then they will move on to drawing and writing in the parts/wholes. The part-whole model will support the children later on in the unit when completing addition and subtraction sums. 



Writing number sentences

Children will learn that the addition symbol (+) can be used to represent combining two or more parts and the equals symbol (=) can be used to show the sum of the parts. The children will have plenty of opportunities to write number sentences as this is an important skill. Once children have established understanding, we will explore number sentences written in a different order. Just like this fact family below:


4+3= 7

3+4= 7

7= 4+3

7= 3+4


Number bonds to 10 and within 10.



Children will need to know their number bonds to 10. These are numbers that are added together to equal 10 (like the rainbow above). Children will also need to know their number bonds numbers within 10. For example, they will need to know all the number bonds (the numbers you add together) to make 6. 1+5, 2+4, 3+3, 4+2, 5+1 and 6+0. They will learn that there is more than one way to make a number. 




Children will be taught that when we add we are bringing two or more parts together to create a whole. This will then be developed into adding more. When adding two parts together, children will need to be able to identify the amounts of each part individually and then the total amount.  When adding more, the children will be taught a variety of strategies. First they will use concrete resources such as counters and cubes, which can also be used on tens frames, then children will be exposed to number lines and shown how to jump from the number. Another strategy that the children will be encouraged to use is to put the greater number in their head and count on. For example, if doing the sum 5 + 3 = we would put 5 in our head and count on 3 (by using our fingers). '5 in our head, 6, 7, 8'.





Children will begin by finding a missing part. They have been taught that two parts make the whole by adding them together but now they will have to work out how to find this missing part. Here we use subtraction. 

Children will be taught that to work out the above number sentence they need to subtract 4 from 6. They will be shown that it can be written as 6 - 4 = .


When learning to subtract, children will start off by physically taking away objects which will then move on to crossing out on diagrams and pictures. They will be shown how to use a number line as well as counting backwards from an amount. 


Children will expand on their previous learning of fact families and now be able to find all eight facts within a fact family. For example: 






In this unit children will recognise, name and sort 2-D and 3-D shapes.